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The Third International - was formed in 1919 at Moscow, Russia. Also known as the Communist International or Comintern, its purpose was to spread the proletarian revolution internationally through the quickest means possible, by the theory of Permanent Revolution. The International Left Opposition, formed in 1923 by Leon Trotsky, fought against the bureaucratic degeneration of the Comintern, which was spearheaded by Joseph Stalin. Unfortunately, the Left Opposition failed, was expelled in 1927 from the Comintern, and went on to found the successor of the Comintern in 1938, the Fourth International. The Third International continued to degenerate, to the point that in 1933 it was unable to stop the rise of the Nazis in Germany, due to the tactics of the Stalinist bureaucracy.